If you’re over the age of 35 and have spent years either sitting behind a desk, diving, labouring, or otherwise being very physically active, you might have a condition commonly called Flat Back Syndrome.
What is Flat Back Syndrome?
Flat Back syndrome is really not a syndrome as such. I prefer to call it flatback posture or the correct medical term, alordosis.
Lordosis is the normal inward curvature in the lower spine. “Alordosis” means “absence of lordosis” – the normal curvature isn’t present, and instead, the lower back is “flat”. The pelvis is usually tipped backward (posterior tilt), associated with or causing the normal spinal curve to flatten.
Signs and Symptoms
- flat lower back curve
- forward head
- round shoulders
- lowback pain often described as ‘aching’
- groin pain
- leg pain
- spinal stiffness, especially on waking
This list is only a guide. You may have many of the signs and symptoms listed, only a few, or none of them. The list is simply to assist you in recognising whether you have flatback posture.
What Causes Flatback Posture?
- Incorrect sitting position
- Degeneration of the lower spinal discs
- Herniated or ‘slipped‘ disc
- Chronic muscular imbalance
If you have spent years sitting incorrectly – sitting on your bottom muscles instead of sitting with your back aligned over your hips – you may have developed chronic muscular imbalances – short, tight abdominals, short, tight hamstrings and weak hip flexors – pulling the pelvis into a tucked-under position (called posterior pelvis).
Incorrect sitting and standing posture, poor nutrition, injuries, athleticism and manual labour can all lead to worn spinal discs. The lower spinal discs should be wedged-shaped; which gives the lumbar region a healthy inward curve, known as lordosis.
Interesting: When people say, ‘I’ve got lordosis’ what they usually mean is that they have hyperlordosis or sway back. The hyper suggests an increase to the normal lumbar curve. We should ideally all have a lordosis in our lumbar spine.
If the lumbar curve is exaggerated it is a hyperlordosis; if it is flat, it’s an alordosis or without a lordosis. Saying you have ‘lordosis’ is actually saying you are normal. That always makes me laugh – in a kind-hearted doc sort of way.
When our spinal discs degenerate, they lose their natural wedge shape, causing a reduction in the natural lordosis. This may result in flatback posture.
A herniated disc is just a severely degenerated disc; where the gelatinous, toothpaste-like material normally found contained inside the disc has leaked though the outer cartilage rings. This also causes loss of the natural wedge shape, that leads to a change in the normal lordotic curve.
Chronic Muscular Imbalance
Many of the muscles responsible for posture and body movement are found in “pairs”. One muscle (or group of muscles) moves a body part in one direction, while the paired muscle moves the same body part in the opposite direction. The two sides of such a pair are said to be “opposers”, since the effort of one side opposes – works in the opposite direction to – the other side.
The efforts of both sides of a muscle pair may also be exerted at the same time (when sitting or standing relatively still), to provide the tension and support needed to hold a body part steady in a desired balanced position.
Further Resources: Balance Exercise for Beginners
When one of the muscles of a pair becomes stronger than its opposer, we say that the stronger one has become dominant. Dominant muscles tend to become short, tight and over-aroused – or facilitated – neurologically. The weaker opposing muscle becomes long and under-aroused, or passive.
Although these muscular imbalances are fairly predictable, individual differences do of course exist. Muscle imbalances commonly found in people with flatback posture include:
|Dominant Short Muscles||Passive Long Muscles|
Because posture and muscular imbalances affect the way we move, problems in one area lead to problems in other areas. Flatback posture often contributes to the development of round shoulders and forward head posture.
Other problems may result from the muscular imbalances found in flatback posture, including:
- Sciatic leg pain (from inflammed, bulging discs)
- Chronic low back pain
- Acute lower back muscle spasms (often one-sided)
It is not essential to know the exact cause of your flatback posture, but it does suggest some sort of daily posture exercise habit is needed to return mobility and optimal alignment to the spine.
The objective is to ultimately restore good alignment, by establishing healthy posture habits and daily routines. Good posture is a habit and one that you can learn to love.
After Thought – Best Ergonomic Tip
Fully upright posture (90°) is hard on the discs in your low back; so avoid buying the “perfect ergonomic chair” that keeps you bolt-upright. Research has shown that reclining at a 135° angle is the least damaging to our lumbar discs when seated.
Before you jump and adjust your seat angle, recognize that such a position is impractical for working at a computer. You’d be so far back, you’d be straining to reach the keyboard and you’d almost certainly increase your forward head position.
It seems to be that 110-120° is about perfect for reducing any forward head posture that could occur if you incline the seat back any further. Personally, I favor 120°, with a lumbar back support.
In any event, do remember to keep your head back, nicely inline above your shoulders. Don’t force it back; simply allow a gentle lengthening to lift your head back into alignment.
Review the chin tuck exercise for forward head posture, if you are unsure.
Inclining your seat 5° downward at the front and using arm rests can further reduce lumbar disc pressure.