The Three Pillars of Posture Motivation | Posture Doctor

The way we hold ourselves is a reflection of how we feel about ourselves. Not only do we look more attractive with upright posture, but science is beginning to show us that our brains are more capable of positivity when the body is in an upright stance.

What motivates you?

Are you driven by reward or punishment – carrot or stick?

The Carrot and Stick theory of motivation was given to us by philosopher Jeremy Bentham, and is derived from the old story of a donkey. The story goes that the best way to move a donkey is to put a carrot out in front and jab it with a stick from behind. It’s not really a very nice story. The carrot is the reward for action (moving forward for our stubborn donkey) while the stick is the punishment for inaction or not moving.

I’m definitely a carrot kinda gal. I spent last weekend training for my CSIA Level 1 certification. The CSIA or Canadian Ski Instructor’s Alliance, enables me to teach downhill skiing (which I delight in) to beginners and intermediates.

The stick was clear – the grueling impact on my body skiing hard for 16 hours over three days. On average, I was 25-30 years older than the majority of students on the course. Although it feels good to look back and think wow that was torture and I did it, that wasn’t my main motivation.

I would never run a marathon, or participate in a Tough Mudder competition. That just doesn’t do it for me. I’m a carrot kinda gal as I said. I don’t get up each morning to Posturecise, to avoid a stiff body, although I love that benefit; I Posturecise daily because I like what I see when I look in the mirror. Carrot, carrot, carrot!

Further Resources: Posturecise Crash Course

Does that sound awful? It’s not that I’m entirely vain – although I am a Leo! It’s that looking (and feeling) youthful signifies to me, that I get to do what I want to do, well into my senior years. I want to ski when I’m 70 and hike the Pyrenees Mountains when I’m 80. Nature is everything to me. That is my motivation. I love a good carrot!

Why do we want to correct our posture?

Over the years, many of you have become committed posture students. You enroll and actively participate in courses at Posture School, you email to ask questions about your posture and health and some of you work 1-2-1 with me over many months. Underlying each of these decisions was some kind of motivation.

Three pillars of posture motivation

It occurred to me fairly recently that the factors driving our motivation to correct our posture, can be summarized into three main categories or pillars of motivation.

Three Pillars of Posture Motivation


Pain is a wonderful motivator. It creates immediate need for action. At some point in our lives, most of us have been motivated by this stick. The problem for most of us who use this to drive our ongoing motivation, is that when the pain is gone, so is our motivation to take action.

Lack of pain does not equate lack of problem.

We can learn to thank our pain, because pain is a part of life and getting rid of the pain shouldn’t be the main goal. If we place our hand near a hot stove, pain very quickly makes us move our hand away. Without pain, we’d leave our hand in the hot flame and get badly burned.

I like to think of pain, as one of the body’s great communication tools. We can learn not to be fearful of pain but instead, become fascinated by our wonderfully working bodies. What is that headache telling us – are we dehydrated, are our muscles tense, do we need to eat?


You’d be surprised how often I hear from you about posture and appearance.

  • I have been struggling with neck hump since my early 20s.
  • How do I stand up straight without flaring my rib cage?
  • I sort of slump forward and this does not look good.
  • When I pose for photos, my upper body always leans far backward.
  • I thought I was standing straight but in reality my upper body always leaned far backward.

There is nothing wrong with wanting to look attractive. In fact there has been a lot of research into body posture and attractiveness.  The science suggests that our posture not only reflects our feelings, but also influences them.

One particular factor of attractiveness that has been extensively researched (including this study) is that of symmetry. You can think of symmetry as good posture and asymmetry as bad posture.

Symmetry (good posture)
Asymmetry (bad posture)

Deviations from bilateral symmetry may be linked to various stressors in pre-natal development … The extent of these deviations may reflect the inability of an individual to cope with environmental and genetic stressors. Fluctuating asymmetry is related with various genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, such as scoliosis … Superior symmetry (ideal posture), therefore, signals the quality of genes that are more resistant to biological and environmental stressors such as disease, pathogens, and parasitic infection.

Wow! Now, you understand why attractiveness is such a huge motivation for so many of us.


The way we hold ourselves is a reflection of how we feel about ourselves. Not only do we look more attractive with upright posture, but science is beginning to show us that our brains are more capable of positivity when the body is in an upright stance.

I have always been struggling with my curved shoulders and this is because of my low self esteem and lack of confidence I suffered as a teenager.

In one study researchers found that people who were told to sit up straight were more likely to believe the thoughts they wrote down while in that posture, about whether or not they were qualified for a job.

Richard Petty (co-author of the study) said that: “Most of us were taught that sitting up straight gives a good impression to other people. But it turns out that our posture can also affect the way we think about ourselves.”

The end result of this study was that when students wrote positive thoughts about themselves, they rated themselves more highly when sitting in an upright posture because the upright posture led to confidence in their positive thoughts.

However, when students wrote negative thoughts about themselves, they rated themselves more negatively when in the upright position (vs. slouched position) because the upright posture led to more confidence in their thoughts, even though they were negative.

That suggests our thoughts are influenced by our posture, even though we don’t realize that is what’s happening. In other words good posture leads to less self doubt. Very cool!

From my experience, a desire to correct our posture stems from one of three motivations, that I call the Three Pillars of Posture Motivation:

  1. Pain
  2. Attractiveness
  3. Confidence

Motivation isn’t black and white, it’s black, white and shades of grey. There is of course great overlap, but it is highly likely that you are primarily motivated by one of these three pillars.

So, are you driven by carrot or stick? I’d love to read your comments on this one. Pop your thoughts below.

Vital Lung Capacity Test – Best Hack | Posture Doctor

Good posture is a significant factor in maintaining a youthful body. When you are stooped over (says Dr Rene Cailliet – founder of rehabilitative medicine): “You not only look old but function that way as well … a slumping posture greatly decreases your vital capacity and your ability to move.”

Good posture is a significant factor in maintaining a youthful body. When you are stooped over (says Dr Rene Cailliet – founder of rehabilitative medicine): “You not only look old but function that way as well … a slumping posture greatly decreases your vital capacity and your ability to move.”

Vital lung capacity

Vital Lung Capacity (VTC) is defined as the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation. Here is a VTC test hack that I like to share with my posture students, as an effective way to measure progress.

Materials needed: Tailors measuring tape or string 

Don’t squeeze the tape too tightly around your chest.

The test:

Measurement 1

Wrap the tailor’s measuring tape around your thorax – level with your sternum (where your lowest ribs meet the middle breast bone). Breathe in and out several times, in a relaxed manner and after a full exhalation, bring the tape measure together (don’t squeeze the tape too tightly), look down and take the reading. Write down the number.

Measurement 2

Take several deep breaths in and out and then fully inhale, allowing your ribcage to expand maximally. Let the measuring tape slide gently through your fingers, as your chest expands. Once again, bring the tape measure together, look down and record the number – it should be larger than measurement 1.

E.g. Paula’s VLC measurements:

  • Measure 1 (M1) = 72cm
  • Measure 2 (M2) = 79cm

M2 should be 8-10% greater than M1

  • 8% of M1 = 5.76 (.08 x 72)
  • 10% of M1 = 7.2 (.1 x 72)
  • M1 + 5.76 = 72+5.76 = 77.76 cm
  • M1 + 7.2 = 72+7.2 = 79.2cm

Paula’s M2 should be approximately 78-79cm.

Paula’s M2 was 79cm, so her vital lung capacity is normal. Phew!

Use the Vital Lung Capacity test every few weeks (provided you are doing posture exercises regularly) to measure your progress. 

More self tests: Posturecise (Level 2) – with self tests and self treatments

Dog Posture: Healthy Touch Techniques | Posture Doctor

When I sold my practice in the UK in 2013 and moved back to Canada, one of my goals was to adopt a dog and move to the country. It was a part of my big juicy goal to practice online full-time as a posture doctor.

When I sold my practice in the UK in 2013 and moved back to Canada, one of my goals was to adopt a dog and move to the country. It was a part of my big juicy goal to practice online full-time as a posture doctor.

Because I always try to practice what I preach, I wanted to make sure that I was posturecising daily and spending as much time outdoors as possible.

In 2015, I’d been checking dog adoption sites regularly, when I came across Milo on Speaking of Dogs.

I melted! How could Milo be available for adoption?! His description said he was loving, good with cats, dogs, children, a non-barker and active. Whattttt??? And then I saw WHY he was still available.

Milo was still in foster care and ‘not yet ready for adoption’. Milo had been taken from his owners (he was 3 years old) as he was underweight, limping and neglected. Speaking of Dogs fostered Milo into a family home, while several specialist vets investigated his limp – including x-rays. He was diagnosed with a dislocated right hip. His profile suggested he ‘may need a future surgery’ in the event of arthritis.

I went to meet Milo and he was pretty darn cute, but not very focused and I was worried that at just 9 lbs – he still had weight to gain – with a dislocated hip, he wouldn’t be an active enough dog for me.

The vets decided not to operate. The dislocation likely happened early in Milo’s life, and the dislocated hip had formed a new joint higher up in the pelvis. Essentially, Milo now has a short right leg with an associated lumbar scoliosis (curvature). EXACTLY LIKE ME!

Milo’s Pelvic X-Ray

I was still unsure about Milo – not because of a potential hip replacement down the road, but because he seemed unfocused and I was concerned he wouldn’t be active enough with his dislocated hip.

That weekend when I told my mum I wasn’t sure about the adoption, she said: “Oh, but who will adopt him if you don’t?” Well, as you can imagine, that finished me off. A week later, Milo came home!

Oh, and by the way, Milo is the fastest, most athletic dog I’ve ever loved. He is my 4th dog, but my 1st small dog. He is just brilliant and I adore him. I think the feeling is mutual.

So why am I telling you this story? Well, besides being a huge part of my life, and making several camio appearances in my posture videos, I believe Milo’s incredibly active lifestyle, excellent health and our shared bond, is largely due to the Healthy Touch Techniques I use with him ever day.

Healthy Touch Techniques

Recently, I had the idea to share my touch techniques with other small dog owners  – not necessarily dogs with medical issues like Milo, but small dog owners who want to learn how to touch, move and handle their dogs to improve their health and deepen their bonding for a long and happy life. In other words, I thought it would be amazing to create a Doggie Posture Course for you and your small dog; to help unleash your dog’s potential.

I’m only at the research phase right now – that is how I begin all of my courses. I’m considering doing something very different with this course – opening it up to a group of beta student testers – 100 students that will get in at a massively discounted price, in exchange for feedback as I build the course.

Anyway, I’d love to hear what you think about this. Would you be interested in such a course? Would you mind a small diversion from people posture for a little bit? Do you have any issues with your small dog that you think this course might help to address? Care to share a picture of your little guy?

Please leave your comments below – I’m keeping an eye out for an enthusiastic group of small dog lovers – Is that you?!

Further Resources: Dog Posture – Small Dog Healthy Touch Techniques

Yours in good doggie posture,

Paula and Milo x

Make Your Yearly Gratitude List – 5 Crucial Categories

This is not the time to be modest. This is YOUR gratitude list. If you are not used to observing all the good in your life, I give you permission to spend a good hour tooting your own horn.

Today is sun-filled with perfect blue skies and hints of a crisp Toronto winter teasing me on my morning walk along the lake. There is something about a chilly autumn morning that has me lost in thought.

Post Updated September, 2018

This morning in particular, I was thinking about the last twelve months of my life and all of the things for which I am grateful. 

Last year I moved my entire life of 17 years back to Canada. I did this for many reasons. The biggest reason was the passing of my step father quite  suddenly, leaving my mother on her own. I felt the need to be near my family.

On my walk, I started listing the things that have happened over the past year, and noticed that my gratitude list generally fit into one of five categories:

  1. Relationships
  2. Health
  3. Wealth
  4. Learning and growth
  5. Giving back

It occurred to me that a yearly gratitude list is as important, if not more important, than the January goals and resolutions list so many of us feel compelled to make. So this is how you go about creating a yearly gratitude list:

1. Make your list in December – a nice way to conclude your year, before the frenzy of Christmas and New Year, is to spend time being grateful for all that you have. Reflect on your relationships (the people you love and who love you), your health (new habits you’ve created, challenges you have overcome), your wealth (new jobs, direction and ideas, debts paid, profits made), learning and growth (courses taken, things you’ve learned, ambitions achieved) and giving back (donations, helping family/friends and strangers, volunteering, paying it forward).

2. Write it down – I started a mental list on my morning walk and came home and began to write it down on my makeshift Ikea whiteboard (courtesy of Ikea Hackers). There are many benefits to writing things down.
You gain clarity on what you want to have more of in your life, and what you can cut out. You gain a new perspective of what’s important to you and what you truly appreciate in your life. You become more self aware, and on melancholic days, you can re-read your list and remember that you have great people and things in your life.  Lifehacker reminds us that regular writing may also have mental health benefits and boost your creativity.

3. Notice the gaps – I noticed my gratitude list is heavy on the learning and growth, and a little light on giving back. The giving back that I’m referring to, is the kind you do when you expect nothing in return. Like my lovely friend Victoria, who has adopted a 9 year old girl through the Children’s Aid Society. At the age of 44 she has become a single mum of a young girl with many challenging issues. Giving back doesn’t have to be so monumental – I was in the drive through recently at Tim Horton’s and when I came up to the counter to pay for my tea and donut, the woman said: The car in front just paid for you. That gesture made my day!

4. Blow your own horn – This is not the time to be modest. This is YOUR gratitude list. If you are not used to observing all the good in your life, I give you permission to spend at least one hour tooting your own horn. I spent many mornings this summer diving into a cool lake to swim to the other side – darn right that goes on my list! 

5. Celebrate – Decide on a completion day for your list (and keep adding to it). I’ve decided to complete my list by December 19th. Then perhaps print your list and pin it up until the start of the New Year. Revel in the life you have lived for the last 12 months. And finally, CELEBRATE your achievements, success, relationships, health, wealth and growth! You deserve it. Why not crack open a bottle of bubbly … cheers to you!

I’m grateful to all of you for reading my blog and continuing to support Posture Videos. Thank you – Having you with me, makes this journey a lot more interesting and worthwhile!

If you would like to share a few of the things on your gratitude list in the comments below, I’d love to read them! 

5 Ways to Get People to Say Yes

The best way to be likable is to find something you have in common. Build rapport. This isn’t always easy but the best way to find out what you have in common is to ask questions

I attended a speaker training workshop recently. There were about 30 of us on the course who regularly do speaking engagements and were keen to fine tune our skills.

One man, whose business card looked like it had been printed at the local dollar store, approached me (and everyone else on the course) and thrust his card toward my chest, pitching his unsolicited credentials as a speaking coach. Yikes!

I formed somewhat of an aversion to this man fairly quickly. What created this powerful NO, and what could he have done differently to get people to say YES? Getting a yes is what psychologists call compliance.

Compliance strategies you can use

1. Smile 

When you’re smiling the whole world smiles with you. Louis Armstrong

A smile is contagious. It improves our mood and can make us appear more attractive to others. One study (1) published in the journal Neuropsychologia reported that an attractive face activated the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the brain and that this region processes sensory reward. Responses in the OFC were enhanced by smiling and this suggests that you actually feel rewarded when you see another person smile

2. Reciprocation – Giving people something for free. If a smile creates a sense of reward for those experiencing your smile, you have in a sense, created a gift. And people like to reciprocate. Whoever is on the receiving end of your gift is then in your debt. I know that sounds cold, but it isn’t meant to. Dean Rieck (author of Copy Blogger) describes this as the Rule of Reciprocity that says: We are all bound — even driven — to repay debts of all kinds.

It doesn’t take much to activate the rule of reciprocation, just a genuine act of giving. Here are three that I like to use:

  1. email – Following a networking event, I like to email an article I think would be of interest or use to someone I’ve met.
  2. Compliment – Be authentic here. I love to notice unique qualities in another. Often, this is something they aren’t even aware of:  An ability to include other people in a conversation; or a terrific sense of style or how they smile using their whole face.  I’m also really good at noticing when someone I know has had a haircut. Men love this, because it’s usually women whose hair gets noticed.
  3. Download – If you are giving away something to download, make sure it’s really valuable. I offer a really well written ebook on my website when people subscribe: The 7 Biggest Mistakes People Make When Correcting Their Posture. It took me a good number of weeks to write this and I even hired a designer to do the illustrations. Don’t skimp on your free gifts. Your customers will assume if your free gifts are fabulous, then your paid services and products must be amazing!

3. Be likable – Remember the man – the speaking coach – that showed up at my training day? I’d suggest, he wasn’t very likable. He came across as abrupt, pushy and self-interested. Be personable and curious about the people you meet. Ask questions – not with an agenda – but because you are genuinely interested. 

The best way to be likable is to find something you have in common. Build rapport. This isn’t always easy but the best way to find out what you have in common is to ask questions:

  • So tell me, how on earth did you ever decide to launch such a creative business? Notice, I did two things here – I used a compliment AND asked a question, in order to find out what we have in common.
  • Wow, you really you have four children? Do any of them share your love of business?
  • How often do you run? I’ve never been a very successful jogger myself.

4. Stories and social proof – Whether we like it or not, we care a lot about what other people think. What would you do? What do you think? Did it help you? Then we act accordingly, all thanks to the impact of social proof.

This is how stories can be effective:

When I was 43, I decided to leave a successful private practice as a chiropractor and took my posture tips online in the form of Posture Videos on Youtube. In less than 12 months I had a million views and now, many millions more and growing fast.

People love this story (I love it too) because it’s true. It tells the story of an ordinary person who did something extraordinary. Perhaps most important, it provides social proof. When people see that what you offer is valued by other people, they are more inclined to trust you.

5. Open posture – No discussion on compliance strategies would be complete, if we didn’t talk about the power of posture. Your posture speaks volumes about you. What is your posture saying about you?

  • Folded arms – cold, on guard and defensive
  • Fidgeting – nervous
  • Slouching round shoulders – lacks confidence

Open upright posture looks attractive and confident, and attractive confident people get more yeses. If you don’t know how to stand tall, with open posture, perhaps this will help you:

1. Neuropsychologia. 2003;41(2):147-55.

Can Mensa Puzzles Improve Your Posture?

There’s a difference between interest and commitment. When you’re interested in doing something, you do it only when circumstance permit. When you’re committed to something, you accept no excuses, only results.

Puzzles reflect our fascination with the mysteries of life. Every morning over breakfast, I sit down with my Mensa puzzle book that’s designed to give my brain the ultimate workout!

Post updated September, 2018

Today I received an email from one of my posture students:

My exercise this last week has been fairly lax if I’m honest I have just been doing the hip stretch and hamstrings … My neck is still chronically tight and I was wondering if you may have any last tips for my neck and shoulders to work on please?

This was my response – and then I’ll get back to Mensa:

Unless you really commit to your neck exercises, you can’t expect your symptoms to improve

There’s a difference between interest and commitment. When you’re interested in doing something, you do it only when circumstance permit. When you’re committed to something, you accept no excuses, only results. Art Turock


So what does Mensa have to do with improving your posture? It’s not really such a big stretch. Doing Mensa puzzles daily is simply a commitment I’ve made to training my brain. It’s just one more way that I can practice the art of making commitments.

If I’m successful creating a lifetime habit solving puzzles over breakfast, it’s just another win for me. When I win, I reinforce another positive behavior.

Can You Complete This Series?

2     5     9     14     20     ?

World Spine Day

Today is World Spine Day. Every year on October 16th people from around the world join together to raise awareness on World Spine Day as part of the Bone and Joint Decade’s Action Week.

This year’s theme is Straighten Up and Move and focuses on the importance of good posture in maintaining our spinal health.

So this year in celebration of World Spine Day, why not take on creating a healthy posturecise habit for life; or at the very least, join me for a little Mensa workout!

7 Everyday Things That Can Wreck Your Posture

It is important to realise that correct sitting posture does not mean best permanent position. To avoid prolonged flexion of the lumbar spine when seated – and injury to our spinal discs – I like to practice active sitting.

Although some people have the mistaken idea that healthcare professionals like me are born clean-living and healthy, the truth is that I have achieved ideal posture as the only sustainable solution to my own health problems.

Post updated September, 2018

I have spent nearly two decades helping people correct their posture and get lasting results, where other approaches have failed. I believe the reason for this, is because I take a holistic approach to healing body posture.

If you want good results that last, you must be willing to look at more than your physical lifestyle.Here is a list I made of simple, everyday things that can wreck your posture:


Incorrect sitting and standing posture, poor nutrition, injuries, athleticism and manual labor can all lead to worn spinal discs. Nutrition is probably the easiest of these to improve.

When you fail to drink enough water – dry skin, headaches and sluggish bowels – your body tissues become dehydrated. When the tissues in question, are your vertebral discs, this can lead to disc degeneration.

Disc degeneration may ultimately lead to a flatback appearance that is often associated with chronic low back pain.

Further Resources: How to Fix a Flat Back


Using your mobile device for extended periods of time can easily lead to neck strain, headaches, and chronic muscle knots. Texting causes our head to bend forward at rather extreme angles and this causes the supporting muscles to remain contracted, in order to hold up the weight of our ten pound head!

Anyone who has used a cellphone or tablet for an extended period of time has probably experienced the uncomfortable strain it puts on your upper body.  Try bringing your phone up to eye level. 


Not all weight lifting is bad. I’m talking about the muscle men and women who are obsessed with their mirror muscles. The muscles you can see when you look (and pose) in the mirror – chest, abs, shoulders, upper traps, biceps and triceps.

The problem is, this type of vanity weight-lifting neglects weights for the opposing muscles on our backs –  lats, lower traps, posterior shoulders, upper or lower back. This can lead to an unattractive slouched appearance.


Because we spend 1/3 of our lives sleeping, it is important to give some real attention to your sleeping posture. Watch below for my sleeping dos and don’ts:


Human beings are not designed for prolonged periods of sitting. We should be out chasing wild boar and climbing trees. At the very least, we should be moving regularly, to reduce the impact of our sedentary, desk-based mobile lives.

It is important to realise that correct sitting posture does not mean best permanent position. To avoid prolonged flexion of the lumbar spine when seated – and injury to our spinal discs – I like to practice active sitting.

Active sitting involves movement and frequent changes of position, while remaining seated. I believe that we can learn a thing or two from our children – Let’s all fidget, wiggle and stir!


Bad posture develops over many years, from bad ergonomic habits. Learned body positions from desk-based occupations, weight gain, manual labor, sporting injuries, activities of daily living (reading, washing, vacuuming) and slouching due to shyness or low self esteem.

If you are shy and have developed bad posture for this reason, then lucky you! Yes, I do mean lucky, because being shy, unlike past accidents and injuries, is much easier to transform.

You can begin to address shyness by learning the body language of confident people. You can literally fake it, until you feel it! Here are 5 things you should quit doing if you want to be successful improving your confidence.

Road rage

In the late 90s, therapists in the United States were working to certify road rage as a medical condition. Although it isn’t listed as an official mental disorder, most of us experience aggressive driving from time to time.

How many times have I been taking a patient’s medical history, when they tell me they have chronic neck pain, headaches and muscle tension? One of my first questions is always: How many car accidents have you been in?

Studies confirm that road rage, is a leading cause of car accidents. All road traffic accidents create the possibility of spinal damage -particularly reversed neck curve.

I generally consider all accidents over 20mph significant. The injury is often not recognized until many years later, on a neck x-ray.

So the next time you get cut off on the highway (that was today for me), take a deep breath, instead of giving them the finger and riding up on their arse! I hear you; easier said, than done.

Help Trivago Guy Find Posture Doctor

Last night I was watching the CBC national evening news and was absolutely inundated by Trivago advertising. Ah, the thrills of North American TV – not!

After reading up on the Trivago Guy, it is apparent that he has become somewhat of a scruffy spokesperson for Trivago, helping to build their brand awareness. Well, I looked him up too, so I guess it’s working!

What really struck me though was the Trivago Guy’s horrible neck posture – poor guy.

What’s up with Trivago Man’s neck? 

There is a lot wrong with his head and neck posture. I did a mini Posture Analysis on the man:

  • Right shoulder inferior to left (very!) – can suggest scoliosis
  • Head translated or shifted right – his right
  • Neck laterally bent left (his left ear sits lower)

This kind of posture pattern in the head and neck could be a compensation for a problem lower down in the pelvis (anatomical short leg for example), but more than likely the Trivago Guy had a past trauma that injured the supportive structures in his neck, causing altered alignment over time.

Common traumas include:

  • car or motorbike accident
  • hit on the head
  • fall from a height (includes horses, off bikes, down stairs)

The Trivago Man or anyone with this kind of asymmetrical head and neck alignment may experience some of these symptoms:

  • headaches
  • tense, painful shoulders
  • neck pain
  • sinus trouble
  • brain fog
  • tingling hands or fingers
  • depression and/or anxiety
  • difficulty concentrating
  • vertigo

Please help Trivago guy find me!

What is your experience of head or neck trauma?